Diabetes mellitus, and what is it?
Currently, the prognosis for all types of diabetes mellitus is conditionally favorable, with adequate treatment and adherence to the diet, the ability to work remains. The progression of complications significantly slows down or stops completely. However, it should be noted that in most cases, as a result of treatment, the cause of the disease is not eliminated, and the therapy is only symptomatic.
Symptoms of diabetes
In diabetes mellitus, the severity of symptoms depends on the degree of decrease in insulin secretion, the duration of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient.
Typically, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes are acute, and the disease begins suddenly. In type 2 diabetes, the state of health deteriorates gradually; in the initial stage the symptoms are scarce.
Excessive thirst and frequent urination are classic signs and symptoms of diabetes. With illness, excess sugar (glucose) accumulates in the blood. Your kidneys have to work hard to filter and absorb excess sugar. If your kidneys fail, excess sugar is excreted in the urine with fluid from the tissues. This causes more frequent urination, which can lead to dehydration. You will want to drink more fluids to quench your thirst, which again leads to frequent urination.
Fatigue can be caused by many factors. It can also be caused by dehydration, frequent urination and the body’s inability to function properly because less sugar can be used for energy.
The third symptom of diabetes mellitus is polyphagia. This is also a thirst, however, no longer for water, but for food. A person eats and at the same time feels not fullness, but filling the stomach with food, which then quickly enough turns into a new hunger.
Intense weight loss. This symptom is inherent mainly in type I diabetes (insulin-dependent) and often girls are happy with it at first. However, their joy passes when they find out the true cause of weight loss. It should be noted that weight loss occurs against the background of increased appetite and abundant nutrition, which cannot but be alarming. Losing weight often leads to wasting.
The symptoms of diabetes can sometimes include vision problems
Slow wound healing or frequent infections.
Tingling sensation in the hands and feet.
Red, swollen, tender gums.
If no action is taken at the first symptoms of diabetes mellitus, then over time complications associated with tissue malnutrition appear – trophic ulcers, vascular diseases, changes in sensitivity, decreased vision. A severe complication of diabetes mellitus is diabetic coma, which occurs more often in insulin-dependent diabetes in the absence of sufficient insulin treatment.
A very important heading in the classification of diabetes mellitus is its division by severity.
It characterizes the most favorable course of the disease to which any treatment should strive. With such a degree of the process, it is completely compensated, the glucose level does not exceed 6-7 mmol /l, there is no glucosuria (excretion of glucose in the urine), the indicators of glycosylated hemoglobin and proteinuria do not go beyond normal values.
This stage of the process speaks of its partial compensation. There are signs of diabetes complications and damage to typical target organs: eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and lower extremities. The glucose level is slightly increased and is 7-10 mmol / l.
Such a course of the process indicates its constant progression and the impossibility of drug control. At the same time, the glucose level fluctuates between 13-14 mmol / l, persistent glucosuria (excretion of glucose in the urine), high proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), there are obvious detailed manifestations of target organ damage in diabetes mellitus. Visual acuity progressively decreases, severe arterial hypertension persists, sensitivity decreases with the appearance of severe pain and numbness of the lower extremities.
This degree characterizes the absolute decompensation of the process and the development of the most severe complications. At the same time, the level of glycemia rises to critical figures (15-25 mmol / l and more), it is difficult to correct by any means. The development of renal failure, diabetic ulcers and gangrene of the extremities is characteristic. Another criterion for grade 4 diabetes is the propensity to develop frequent diabetic coma.
Also, there are three states of compensation for disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: compensated, sub compensated and decompensated.