Diabetes mellitus – symptoms, causes and treatment
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease caused by a lack of the hormone insulin in the body or its low biological activity. It is characterized by a violation of all types of metabolism, damage to large and small blood vessels and is manifested by hyperglycemia.
The first to name the disease – “diabetes” was the physician Aretius, who lived in Rome in the second century AD. e. Much later, in 1776, the doctor Dobson (an Englishman by birth), examining the urine of diabetics, found that it had a sweetish taste, which indicated the presence of sugar in it. So, diabetes began to be called “diabetes”.
With any type of diabetes, blood sugar control becomes one of the primary tasks of the patient and his attending physician. The closer the sugar level is to the normal range, the less the symptoms of diabetes appear, and the less the risk of complications
Why does diabetes mellitus occur, and what is it?
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that occurs due to insufficient formation of its own insulin in the patient’s body (type 1 disease) or due to a violation of the effect of this insulin on tissues (type 2). Insulin is produced in the pancreas, and therefore diabetic patients are often among those who have various disorders in the work of this organ.
Type 1 diabetes occurs against the background of insulin deficiency, which is why it is called insulin-dependent. With this type of disease, the pancreas does not function properly: it either does not produce insulin at all, or it produces it in a volume insufficient to process even the minimum amount of incoming glucose. This results in an increase in blood glucose levels. Typically, type 1 diabetes occurs in thin people under the age of 30. In such cases, patients are given additional doses of insulin to prevent ketoacidosis and maintain a normal standard of living.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 affects up to 85% of all patients with diabetes mellitus, mainly people over 50 years old (especially women). Overweight people with diabetes of this type are characterized by overweight: more than 70% of these patients are obese. It is accompanied by the production of a sufficient amount of insulin, to which tissues gradually lose sensitivity.
Signs of diabetes in women and men
There are a number of signs of diabetes mellitus, characteristic of both type 1 and type 2 of the disease. These include:
- A feeling of unquenchable thirst and frequent urination, which lead to dehydration;
- Also one of the signs is dry mouth;
- Increased fatigue;
- Yawning, drowsiness;
- Wounds and cuts heal very slowly;
- Nausea, possibly vomiting;
- Respiration is frequent (possibly with the smell of acetone);
- Heart palpitations;
- Itching of the genitals and itchy skin;
- Weight loss;
- Increased urination;
- Deterioration of vision.
If you have any of the above signs of diabetes, then be sure to measure your blood sugar.